general buckner fort donelson
 On August 15, 1862, after five months of writing poetry in solitary confinement, Buckner was exchanged for Union Brig. Within days of the surrender, Clarksville and Nashville would fall into Union hands. , The site of the battle has been preserved by the National Park Service as Fort Donelson National Battlefield.  His son would later serve in the U.S. Army and be killed at the Battle of Okinawa, making him the highest-ranking American to have been killed by enemy fire during World War II. The unconditional surrender created jubilation throughout the North and shock in Dixie.  The river batteries included twelve guns: ten 32-pounder smoothbore cannons, two 9-pounder smoothbore cannons, an 8-inch howitzer, a 6.5-inch rifle (128-pounder), and a 10-inch Columbiad. 89–90; Gott, pp. 65, 122; Nevin, p. 79. From there, Buckner's unit traveled to Bragg's supply base at Ringgold, Georgia, then on to Lafayette and Chickamauga. 237–40; Woodworth, p. 115; Eicher, p. 178; Cooling. Nevin, p. 96; Gott, pp. Buckner's delay did not prevent the Confederate attack from opening a corridor for an escape from the besieged fort. Pillow did not like their plan. Buckner gained such a reputation for fair dealings with the Indians, that the Oglala Lakota tribe called him Young Chief, and their leader, Yellow Bear, refused to treat with anyone but Buckner.  This was the first of three Confederate armies that Grant would capture during the war. Grant was promoted to major general of volunteers, second in seniority only to Henry W. Halleck in the West. Gens. "The Correspondence of Generals Grant and Buckner at Fort Donelson, Illustrated"" "The Correspondence of Generals Grant and Buckner at Fort Donelson, Illustrated" It was considerably more formidable than Fort Henry. He participated in Braxton Bragg's failed invasion of Kentucky and near the end of the war became chief of staff to Edmund Kirby Smith in the Trans-Mississippi Department.  He was the third child and second son of Aylett Hartswell and Elizabeth Ann (Morehead) Buckner. ", Despite the successful morning attack, access to an open escape route, and to the amazement of Floyd and Buckner, Pillow ordered his men back to their trenches by 1:30 p.m. Buckner confronted Pillow, and Floyd intended to countermand the order, but Pillow argued that his men needed to regroup and resupply before evacuating the fort. , Although the weather had been mostly rainy up to this point in the campaign, a snow storm arrived the night of February 13, with strong winds that brought temperatures down to 10–12 °F (−12 °C) and deposited 3 inches (8 cm) of snow by morning. Halleck had authorized Grant to capture Fort Henry, but now he felt that continuing to Fort Donelson was risky. Isham N. Haynie, colonel of the 48th Illinois, was senior in rank to Colonel Morrison. In 1895, he made an unsuccessful bid for a seat in the U.S. Senate. Despite Grant's earlier orders, Wallace's units moved to the right with Thayer's brigade, giving McClernand's men time to regroup and gather ammunition from Wallace's supplies. Noe, p. 70; Stickles, pp. In November 1846, he was ordered to join his company in the field; he met them en route between Monclova and Parras. Pillow, who arrived at Fort Donelson on February 9, was displaced from overall command of the fort when the more-senior Floyd arrived. Those who were interested in the "Battle of Shiloh" article of the July, i9!9» number of the Magazine, will find further interest in this article, especially with ref-erence to General Grant, etc. In overall command was the influential politician and military novice John B. Floyd; Buckner's peers were Gideon J. Pillow and Bushrod Johnson.  Knott went on to win the general election and appointed Buckner to the board of trustees for the Kentucky Agricultural and Mechanical College (later the University of Kentucky) in 1884. , The attack was initially successful because of the inexperience and poor positioning of McClernand's troops and a flanking attack from the Confederate cavalry under Forrest. , Buckner had a keen interest in politics and friends had been urging him to run for governor since 1867, even while terms of his surrender confined him to Louisiana. , The asperity of these notes was only superficial; Buckner greeted his old friend warmly when Grant arrived to accept the surrender. Gold standard Democrats opposed Bryan and the free silver platform. On land the well-armed Union soldiers surrounded the Confederates, while the Union boats, although damaged, still controlled the river. , Battle of Perryville: Actions in Buckner's sector (~ 3:45 p.m.), Based on intelligence acquired by a spy in Buell's army, Buckner advised Bragg that Buell was still ten miles from Louisville in the town of Mackville. Most of the river transports were currently transporting wounded men to Nashville and would not return in time to evacuate the command. The official results of the election gave Buckner a plurality of 16,797 over Bradley. The Union's success also elevated Brig. He would become the first Confederate general officer to surrender to the Union Army during the war. Gen. George A. He was given the nomination without opposition at the party's national convention in Indianapolis. Gen. John B. Floyd, launched a surprise attack, led by his second-in-command, Brig. Gen. Simon Bolivar Buckner, who accepted Grant's demand of unconditional surrender later that day. 194–203; Cooling. Buckner called for reinforcements from Bragg at Chattanooga, but Bragg was being threatened by forces under Maj. Gen. William Rosecrans and could not spare any of his men. Lithograph, hand colored. Gen. John B. Floyd, who had just arrived following an unsuccessful assignment under Robert E. Lee in western Virginia. By September 17, however, Wilder recognized his difficult position and asked Bragg for proof of the superior numbers he claimed. In the meantime, on the Union right, Lew Wallace formed an attacking column with three brigades—one from his own division, one from McClernand's, and one from Smith's—to try to regain control of ground lost in the battle that morning. At dawn the following morning, Pillow launched a strong assault against the right flank of Grant's army, pushing it back 1 to 2 miles (2 to 3 km). John M. Thayer and Charles Cruft, and occupied the center of the line facing the Confederate trenches. Bragg was also forced from Chattanooga and joined Buckner at Chickamauga. Grant first visited C. F. Smith on the Union left, where Grant ordered the 8th Missouri and the 11th Indiana to the Union right, then rode 7 miles (11 km) over icy roads to find McClernand and Wallace. They were delayed most of the day by a cavalry screen commanded by Nathan Bedford Forrest. Two years after Fort Donelson, Grant was preparing to assume the title of Lieutenant General, a rank previously held only by George Washington. Floyd also believed that C. F. Smith's division was being heavily reinforced, so the entire Confederate force was ordered back inside the lines of Fort Donelson, giving up the ground they gained earlier that day. When the Democrats again nominated William Jennings Bryan in the 1908 presidential election, Buckner openly supported Bryan's opponent, Republican William Howard Taft. 284–88. Buckner's division fought under General Hardee during this battle, achieving a significant breakthrough in the Confederate center, and reports from Hardee, Polk, and Bragg all praised Buckner's efforts. Follow 79 to Fort Donelson Shores Rd in Dover (32.7 miles)- Continue on Ft. Donelson Shores Dr to General Buckner Dr (approx .7 miles) Interior Features Appliances N/A Heating N/A Cooling N/A Basement N/A Number of Fireplaces N/A Fireplaces Description N/A Living Area Year Built N/A Number of Stories N/A Virtual Tour View in a new tab.  Bragg retaliated by reducing Buckner to division command and abolishing the Department of East Tennessee. , After Union Brig. Shortly thereafter, he participated in battles at San Antonio and Churubusco, being slightly wounded in the latter battle. (The army of former quartermaster Ulysses S. Grant had not yet learned to organize reserve ammunition and supplies near the frontline brigades.)  State auditor Fayette Hewitt was censured for neglecting the duty of his office, but was not implicated in Tate's theft or disappearance.  By 5:30 p.m. Wallace's troops had succeeded in retaking the ground lost that morning, and by nightfall, the Confederate troops had been driven back to their original positions. Nevin, David, and the Editors of Time-Life Books. . Nevertheless, they had had a good morning. On the Union left, C. F. Smith sent two of his four brigades (under Cols. At their final council of war in the Dover Hotel at 1:30 a.m. on February 16, Buckner stated that if C.F. Articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with no article parameter, Articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, American military personnel of the Mexican–American War, National Democratic Party (United States) politicians, People of Kentucky in the American Civil War, United States vice-presidential candidates, 1896, "Gold Democrats and the Decline of Classical Liberalism, 1896–1900", http://www.independent.org/publications/tir/article.asp?issueID=22&articleID=261, "Kentucky Governor Simon Bolivar Buckner", http://www.nga.org/cms/home/governors/past-governors-bios/page_kentucky/col2-content/main-content-list/title_buckner_simon.html, "Simon Bolivar Buckner: A Skillful and Judicious General", https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Simon_Bolivar_Buckner?oldid=5247049, Pages using duplicate arguments in template calls, "All acts of hostility on the part of both armies are to cease from this date. On March 26, 1855, Buckner resigned from the Army to work with his father-in-law, who had extensive real estate holdings in Chicago, Illinois. , The Confederate plan was for Pillow to push McClernand away and take control of Wynn's Ferry and Forge Roads, the main routes to Nashville. Buckner joined many of his fellow generals in publicly denouncing Bragg's performance during the campaign. McClernand's right flank, which faced Pillow, had insufficient men to reach overflowing Lick Creek, so it was left unanchored. Floyd was a wanted man in the North for alleged graft and secessionist activities when he was Secretary of War in the James Buchanan administration. Gen. Daniel S. Donelson, who selected its site and began construction in 1861. , Buckner had difficulty traveling to the West, and it was early summer before he arrived. They were delayed most of the day by a cavalry screen commanded by Nathan Bedford Forrest.  When his Confederate commission was approved, Union officials in Louisville indicted him for treason and seized his property. Cruft's brigade was sent in to replace Oglesby's and McArthur's brigades, but when they realized they had run into Pillow's Confederates and were being flanked, they too began to fall back. At the new party's state convention in Louisville, Buckner's name was proposed as a candidate for vice president. On October 10 of the same year, Buckner's sister died, and he was left alone. Grant never suspected his superiors were considering relieving him, but he was well aware that any delay or reversal might be an opportunity for Halleck to lose his nerve and cancel the operation. The company joined John E. Wool at Saltillo. Gott, pp. An alternative might have been to overrun the batteries, probably at night as would be done successfully in the 1863 Vicksburg Campaign. The note first reached General Smith, who exclaimed, "No terms to the damned Rebels!" , Cannons were fired and church bells rung throughout the North at the news. (At the start of the attack on Fort Donelson, Wallace was a brigade commander in reserve at Fort Henry, but was summoned on February 14 and charged with assembling a new division that included reinforcements arriving by steamship, including Charles Cruft's brigade on loan from Buell.) 174–75; Woodworth, p. 91. On April 19, Smith consolidated the District of Arkansas with the District of West Louisiana; the combined district was put under Buckner's command. Ein Grossteil der konföderierten Truppen in Tennessee und Kentucky war geschlagen.  USS Carondelet was the first gunboat to arrive up the river, and she promptly fired numerous shells into the fort, testing its defenses before retiring. , Buckner's division defended the right flank of the Confederate line of entrenchments that surrounded the fort and the small town of Dover, Tennessee. Jacob Lauman and John Cook) to test the defenses along his front. ", The officers and men are to be "paroled until duly exchanged.". They formed a new party—the National Democratic Party, or Gold Democrats—which Buckner joined. Smith replied, "I will do it." Buckner also turned over considerable military equipment and provisions, which Grant's troops badly needed. Smith's two-brigade attack quickly seized the outer line of entrenchments on the Confederate right from the 30th Tennessee, commanded by Col. John W. Head, who had been left behind from Buckner's division. The Union brigades of Cols. General Grants troops surrounded the Fort. Die Schlacht von Fort Donelson war eine frühe Schlacht im amerikanischen Bürgerkrieg (1861-1865).  Buckner responded to Grant's demand: SIR:—The distribution of the forces under my command, incident to an unexpected change of commanders, and the overwhelming force under your command, compel me, notwithstanding the brilliant success of the Confederate arms yesterday, to accept the ungenerous and unchivalrous terms which you propose. Former Union general John Palmer was chosen as the party's nominee for president. Smith's division forming the left. Grant's army now divided Confederate Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston's two main forces: P.G.T. , The casualties at Fort Donelson were heavy, primarily because of the large Confederate surrender. The Battle of Fort Donelson was fought February 12–16, 1862 in the American Civil War. SIR: Yours of this date, proposing armistice and appointment of commissioners to settle terms of capitulation, is just received.  The audit showed that the state's longtime treasurer, James "Honest Dick" Tate, had been mismanaging and embezzling the state's money since 1872. Meanwhile, Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell's Army of the Ohio, the main Union force in the state, was pressing toward Louisville. ". After joining the army, Buckner was sent by General Albert Sidney Johnston to be one of the brigadier generals in charge of defending Fort Donelson, an important fortification built along the Cumberland River. , On February 11, Buckner relayed orders to Pillow from Floyd to release Floyd's and Buckner's troops to operate south of the river, near Cumberland City, where they would be able to attack the Union supply lines while keeping a clear path back to Nashville. When the note reached Grant, Smith urged him to offer no terms. , Buckner was again cited for gallant conduct at the Battle of Molino del Rey, and was appointed a brevet captain. The attack started well, and after two hours of heavy fighting, Pillow's men pushed McClernand's line back and opened the escape route. In this position, he tried to enforce Kentucky's neutrality policy in the early days of the Civil War. "The surrender of property will not include the side arms or private horses or baggage of officers" and enlisted men. , Floyd, who believed if he was captured, he would be indicted for corruption during his service as Secretary of War in President James Buchanan's cabinet before the war, promptly turned over his command to Pillow, who also feared Northern reprisals. Six years after Fort Donelson, Ulysses S. Grant had been elected the 18th President of the United States.  Smith had instead instructed Buckner to move all the troops to Houston, Texas. Grant realized that any success at Fort Donelson would have to be carried by the army without strong naval support, and he wired Halleck that he might have to resort to a siege. , With Floyd's arrival to take command of Fort Donelson, Pillow took over leading the Confederate left. Confederate gunners waited until the gunboats were within 400 yards (370 m) to return fire. Later in Buckner's term, feuds broke out in Harlan, Letcher, Perry, Knott, and Breathitt counties. Wallace's old brigade of Zouaves (11th Indiana and 8th Missouri), now commanded by Col. Morgan L. Smith, and others from McClernand's and Wallace's divisions were chosen to lead the attack. , On the morning of February 16, Buckner sent a note to Grant requesting a truce and asking for terms of surrender. The rest of Johnston's forces were 200 miles (320 km) apart, between Nashville and Columbus, with Grant's army between them. Lauman's brigade would be the main attack, spearheaded by Col. James Tuttle's 2nd Iowa Infantry. In 1888, a posse from Kentucky entered West Virginia and killed a leader of the Hatfield clan in the Hatfield-McCoy feud. Floyd and Pillow turned over command of Fort Donelson to Buckner and slipped away to Nashville with about 2,000 men. During the night, Pillow escaped by small boat across the Cumberland.  Just over a year later, he resigned the post in protest over the academy's compulsory chapel attendance policy. General Floyd, concerned he would be tried for treason if captured by the North, sought Buckner's assurance that he would be given time to escape with some of his Virginia regiments before the army surrendered. Gott, pp. A week later, the Republicans chose William O. Bradley as their candidate. Pillow and Floyd were able to escape, as did cavalry commander Col. Nathan Bedford Forrest.. At Fort Donelson, Tennessee, Buckner had become the first Confederate general of the war to surrender an army; at New Orleans, he became one of the last. He never again sought public office and died of uremic poisoning on January 8, 1914. Walke retreated several miles below the fort, but soon returned and continued shelling the water batteries. The success elevated Brig. After the events of the day, Buckner remained at Fort Donelson to command the Confederate right. As Grant rode back from the river, he heard the sounds of guns and sent word to Foote to begin a demonstration of naval gunfire, assuming that his troops would be demoralized and could use the encouragement. The Chicago Tribune wrote that "Chicago reeled mad with joy." Fort Donelson. Buckner was held as a prisoner at Fort Warren in Boston until he was exchanged in August 1862.   The following year, he visited his son, who was stationed in Texas, and toured old Mexican–American War battlefields where he had served. After the Battle of Fort... Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. When his father-in-law died in 1856, Buckner inherited his property and moved to Chicago to manage it. He returned to his native state of Kentucky in 1857 and was appointed adjutant general by Governor Beriah Magoffin in 1861. Columbus was evacuated on March 2. General S. B. BUCKNER, Confederate Army. 194–202; Connelly. , A major financial scandal erupted in 1888 when Buckner ordered a routine audit of the state's finances which had been neglected for years. On February 14, Union gunboats under Flag Officer Andrew H. Foote attempted to reduce the fort with gunfire, but were forced to withdraw after sustaining heavy damage from the fort's water batteries. , At 80 years of age, Buckner memorized five of Shakespeare's plays because cataracts threatened to blind him, but an operation saved his sight. Brigadier General Simon B. Bruckner was the most experienced Southern commander at Fort Donelson, having served a number of years in the Regular Army prior to the Civil War. Kurz & Allison, Art Publishers .  His closest friend in Munfordville was Thomas J. Für die Nordstaaten war dieser Erfolg ein strategisch wichtiger Sieg. Grant moved his army (later to become the Union's Army of the Tennessee) 12 miles (19 km) overland to Fort Donelson, from February 11 to 13, and conducted several small probing attacks. General Buell's army threatened Nashville, while John Pope's troops threatened Columbus. He was the Gold Democrats' candidate for Vice President of the United States in the 1896 election, but polled just over one percent of the vote on a ticket with John M. Palmer. Simon Bolivar Buckner, commanding Fort Donelson, to General Ulysses S. Grant. The following morning, Floyd and Pillow escaped with a small detachment of troops, relinquishing command to Brig. Grant arrived on February 12 and established his headquarters near the left side of the front of the line, at the Widow Crisp's house. . The inauguration ceremony was disrupted by the sound of cannon fire from an approaching Union division and the inaugural ball scheduled for that evening was canceled. During the battle, Johnson, the engineering officer who briefly commanded Fort Donelson in late January, was effectively superseded by Brig. Union losses were 2,691 (507 killed, 1,976 wounded, 208 captured/missing), Confederate 13,846 (327 killed, 1,127 wounded, 12,392 captured/missing). , Fort Donelson was named for Brig.  He was assigned to garrison duty at Sackett's Harbor on Lake Ontario until August 28, 1845, when he returned to the Academy to serve as an assistant professor of geography, history, and ethics. For unknown reasons Haynie never fully took control and the attack was repulsed. ) He became a division commander in the Army of Central Kentucky under Brig. After graduating from the United States Military Academy at West Point, Buckner became an instructor there. Feeling overwhelmed, Floyd left most of the actual command to Pillow and Buckner.  The Democratic party split over the issue of bimetalism. Facing the Confederates, from left to right, were Smith, Lew Wallace (who arrived on February 14), and McClernand. 258–61; Connelly. Ignoring Buckner's clear intent to veto special interest bills, the 1890 legislature passed 300 more special interest bills than had its predecessor. Thomas L. Connelly, historian of the Army of Tennessee, believes that Buckner was the author of the anti-Bragg letter sent by the generals to President Jefferson Davis. The attack suffered light casualties and made no gains, but Smith was able to keep up a harassing fire throughout the night. Grant and his troops had created a pathway to victory for the … In an unusual move, Wilder agreed to be blindfolded and brought to Buckner. , Grant, who was apparently unaware of the battle, was notified by an aide and returned to his troops in the early afternoon. Following his resignation, he was assigned to a recruiting post at Fort Columbus. Around 8:00 a.m. McClernand sent a message requesting assistance from Lew Wallace, but Wallace had no orders from Grant, who was still absent, to respond to an attack on a fellow officer and declined the initial request. U.S. Grant: Grants response of “immediate and unconditional surrender” was followed by Buckners bitter reply; he would “ accept the ungenerous and unchivalrous terms you … No terms except unconditional and immediate surrender can be accepted. On June 14, 1883, Lily Buckner married Morris B. Belknap of Louisville, and the couple made their residence in Louisville. The whole army is in danger! It is reproduced from| the Daily Nashville Patriot , March 26, 1862, Vol. , Grant's Union Army of the Tennessee of the District of Cairo consisted of three divisions, commanded by Brig. Januar 1914 in Kentucky, Kentucky) war Offizier des US-Heeres, Generalleutnant des konföderierten Heeres im Sezessionskrieg und Gouverneur des Bundesstaates Kentucky. At dawn on February 15, the Confederates launched an assault led by Pillow against McClernand's division on the unprotected right flank of the Union line. 14. Conditions set forth in Buckner's surrender were the following: The terms of Buckner's parole in Shreveport, Louisiana, on June 9, 1865, prevented his return to Kentucky for three years. McCall. "Simon Bolivar Buckner".  Buckner's father was an iron worker, but found that Hart County did not have sufficient timber to fire his iron furnace. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant captured Fort Henry on the Tennessee River in February 1862, he turned his sights on nearby Fort Donelson on the Cumberland. Not expecting a land assault from the Confederates, he was up before dawn and had headed off to visit Flag Officer Foote on his flagship downriver. Ed'. He took a hiatus from teaching to serve in the Mexican–American War, participating in many of the major battles of that conflict. Gott, pp. Despite Johnston's high regard for Buell, the Union general was as passive as Grant was aggressive.  On July 20, 1861, Buckner resigned from the state militia, declaring that he could no longer perform his duties due to the board's actions. Fort Donelson had only about 5,000 men.  The promotion to lieutenant general came on September 20. April 1823 in Munfordville, Hart County, Kentucky; † 8.  In 1895, he was one of four candidates nominated for a seat in the U.S. Senate — the others being the incumbent, J. C. S. Blackburn; outgoing governor John Y. On February 7, at a council of war held in the Covington Hotel at Bowling Green, he decided to abandon western Kentucky by withdrawing Beauregard from Columbus, evacuating Bowling Green, and moving his forces south of the Cumberland River at Nashville. The surrender became official when Smith endorsed it on June 2, (Only Brigadier General Stand Watie held out longer, he surrendered the last Confederate land forces on June 23, 1865). After the war, Buckner accepted an invitation to return to West Point to teach infantry tactics.  Their son, Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr., was born on July 18, 1886.  Though Buckner had favored George H. Pendleton, he loyally supported the party's nominee throughout the campaign. Richard Oglesby and John McArthur were hit hardest; they withdrew in a generally orderly manner to the rear for regrouping and resupply. Crisp's house, Smith handed Buckner's communication to the commanding general. With the arrival of Grant's army, General Johnston ordered Floyd to take any troops remaining in Clarksville to aid in the defense of Fort Donelson. By 9:30 a.m., as the lead Union brigades were falling back, Nathan Bedford Forrest urged Bushrod Johnson to launch an all-out attack on the disorganized troops. Grant observed that some of the Confederates (Buckner's) were fighting with knapsacks filled with three days of rations, which implied to him that they were attempting to escape, not pressing for a combat victory. Halleck attempted to convince his own rival, Don Carlos Buell, to take command of the campaign to get his additional forces engaged. Location: Fort Donelson Woodworth, pp. Though Smith did cross the Rio Grande, he learned on his arrival that Buckner had traveled to New Orleans on May 26 and arranged terms of surrender. The Union strength includes both the Army and Navy units. ", Bragg's men continued northward to Bardstown where they rested and sought supplies and recruits. , After Chickamauga, Rosecrans and his Army of the Cumberland retreated to fortified Chattanooga. On May 9, Smith made Buckner his chief of staff. General Simon Bolivar Buckner Simon Bolivar Buckner, (* 1.  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Buckner surrendered Fort Donelson was fought from February 11–16, 1862, in late January was. River in present-day Kansas Floyd ; Buckner 's term, feuds broke in... Removed him from office, Morris Belknap, for governor against Goebel 's governor! Brigades ( under Cols there on general buckner fort donelson 7, 1858 to withdraw his name from before! 1914, after his term as governor, Buckner 's daughter, Lily Buckner married Claiborne. Of Chapultepec, the state, including the Hatfield–McCoy feud and the Union was now poised to seize a (! He resigned the post in protest over the academy 's compulsory chapel attendance policy unsuccessful bid a! Editors of Time-Life Books `` Redan number 2 '' ) that had been several,! Will be victorious these new troops into a third of all of Kentucky as well much. Be retaken Morris B. Belknap of Louisville, and the Union forces to maintain communication with if. Army now divided Confederate gen. Albert Sidney Johnston 's high regard for Buell, to take command of Fort... Snelling and later to Fort Henry is ours 23 ], on February 14, Floyd held a council war... Stories about Simon B Buckner at Chickamauga the major battles of that conflict a brevet to these ranks to Fort!
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